Las búsquedas por Internet podrían revelar trastornos neurodegenerativos, según un estudio

Un estudio reciente ha ensayado un nuevo método para detectar algunos trastornos degenerativos de forma temprana. Los resultados son muy prometedores, pero las características de la investigación desataron una fuerte polémica.
Las búsquedas por Internet podrían revelar trastornos neurodegenerativos, según un estudio
Sergio De Dios González

Revisado y aprobado por el psicólogo Sergio De Dios González el 30 junio, 2021.

Escrito por Edith Sánchez, 30 junio, 2021

Última actualización: 30 junio, 2021

Un estudio llevado a cabo por la Universidad de Duke (Estados Unidos), en colaboración con Microsoft, ha dado pistas para descubrir trastornos neurodegenerativos a distancia. Los datos se han acopiado mediante la captación y el análisis de ciertas señales que aparecen cuando los usuarios hacen búsquedas por Internet.

En el estudio, los autores se proponen aportar elementos de juicio para detectar algunos trastornos neurodegenerativos, como la enfermedad de Parkinson o el alzhéimer. Hasta el momento, los resultados parecen prometedores, pero esto no ha evitado la polémica por la manera en la que se ha recogido la información.

Lo anterior se debe a que los usuarios no saben que están recolectando información cuando hacen búsquedas por Internet. Si bien el estudio está motivado por una causa loable, lo cierto es que las personas deberían estar mejor informadas acerca de esta modalidad de captura de datos.

En el examen de la enfermedad ganamos sabiduría sobre la anatomía, la fisiología y la biología. En el examen de la persona con enfermedad, ganamos sabiduría sobre la vida”.

-Oliver Sacks-

Los trastornos neurodegenerativos

Los trastornos neurodegenerativos son frecuentes en el mundo actual. Uno de los grandes problemas para enfrentar de manera acertada estos males es el hecho de que suelen detectarse cuando ya es tarde. Por lo general, los síntomas iniciales son muy sutiles y es habitual que se les confunda con otras afecciones.

Cuando los trastornos neurodegenerativos son detectados de forma precoz, el pronóstico es mucho más favorable. Se puede comenzar un tratamiento temprano y esto contribuye mucho a ralentizar las enfermedades y lograr que se tornen menos severas.

Pensando en ello, los científicos de la Universidad de Duke llegaron a la conclusión de que las búsquedas por Internet podrían aportar datos valiosos. Varias de las acciones que se llevan a cabo durante tales búsquedas pueden catalogarse como “fenotipos digitales”. Esto es, características visibles que aparecen cuando un individuo interactúa con su medio.

El estudio en las búsquedas por Internet

Para la realización de este estudio los investigadores se asociaron con Microsoft. El objetivo era analizar ciertas acciones de los usuarios cuando hacen las búsquedas por Internet. En concreto, se analizaron usuarios de la plataforma Bing, pero a ninguno de ellos se le avisó que estaba participando en un estudio.

En total, se analizaron los datos de 31,3 millones de usuarios de Bing. La investigación se hizo durante 18 meses, entre septiembre de 2015 y febrero de 2017. El estudio se centró en el seguimiento de cuatro variables:

  • Búsquedas de información sobre los síntomas de los trastornos neurodegenerativos.
  • Movimientos temblorosos y torpes con el cursor.
  • Clic repetitivos.
  • Búsquedas asociadas a factores de riesgo como exposición a toxinas y edad avanzada.

El seguimiento se llevó a cabo de forma rutinaria durante los 18 meses del estudio. Al final, se cruzó la información de todas las variables y se encontraron 700 casos de posibles usuarios que habían recibido un diagnóstico reciente de la enfermedad de Parkinson.

Las conclusiones del estudio

Para extraer conclusiones definitivas, los investigadores desarrollaron un algoritmo que permitía cruzar las cuatro variables estudiadas y establecer la probabilidad de que el usuario presentara enfermedad de Parkinson. Se eligió esta patología porque es uno de los trastornos degenerativos más fácilmente detectables con la técnica empleada.

Al final, se contrastaron esos resultados con los 700 casos seleccionados previamente. El método fue eficaz para detectar la enfermedad de Parkinson en un 94.2 %, un 83,1 %, un 42 % y un 34,6 %, por cada variable, respectivamente. Así mismo, se encontró que el número de falsos positivos era muy reducido en comparación con los métodos de diagnóstico tradicionales.

Los investigadores piensan que en un futuro cercano será posible emplear técnicas similares para el diagnóstico temprano de otros trastornos neurodegenerativos, como la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

Mujer con ordenador

La polémica

El estudio de la Universidad de Duke y Microsoft desató una gran polémica entre los científicos. Algunos piensan que no se quebrantó ningún principio ético, ya que en ningún momento se develaron los datos personales de quienes habían participado en el estudio sin saberlo.

Otros creen que esto no es suficiente, sino que es necesario contar con el consentimiento de los usuarios para que puedan participar en cualquier investigación. Piensan que si esto se tolera, en poco tiempo podrían aparecer estudios similares que apunten hacia temas más comprometedores, lo que constituiría una violación a la privacidad. El debate está abierto.

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